Prostate cancer treatment:

 


Prostate cancer treatment:


 Treatment is classified according to the stage of cancer, and this is divided into two parts: treatment of the first stage of cancer, and treatment of advanced or advanced stage of cancer:


 Treatment of early stage prostate cancer:


 If the cancer is small and localized to one area (not spread), treatment usually depends on one of the following options:


 Status Monitor:


 The patient is not subjected to treatment directly, but the level of PSA protein in the blood is monitored periodically.


 Radiotherapy:


 It depends on the use of very high energy to eliminate cancer cells.  Radiation therapy is delivered in two ways:


 Radiation that comes from outside your body (external radiation):


 During this type of treatment, the patient lies on a table while a machine moves around the patient's body that directs beams of high-energy beams, such as X-rays or protons.  And this treatment is done 5 times a week and keep it for several weeks.


 Conformational radiotherapy: radiation beams are formed in a shape that is very close to the shape of the affected organ or area that needs treatment, so that the beams are applied to it and the risk of exposure of healthy tissues to these rays is reduced.  So advanced forms of radiotherapy are delivered by a computer-controlled linear accelerator.


 Treatment depends on individual cases.  In general, if the prognosis is good and the cancer is in the early stages, all options are possible.  Each type of treatment has its positive and negative effects.  Therefore, the patient should be discussed with the options available to him.


 Radiation placed inside the patient's body (brachytherapy):


 This type of treatment involves implanting radioactive seeds the size of a grain of rice into the prostate gland tissue.  And these radioactive seeds deliver a low dose of radiation for a long period of time.  The doctor implants radioactive seeds into the prostate using a needle guided by ultrasound images.  Eventually these seeds stop transmitting radiation and there is no need to remove them.


 Radioactive injections target the tumor site directly and deliver radiation to bone tumors in the form of short-range radiation to reduce damage and damage to vital healthy tissues.  Radium (as calcium) is absorbed by the bones.


 Side effects from radiotherapy include:


 Pain when urinating, an urgent desire to urinate and an increase in the number of urination times, whether during the day or at night, in addition to erectile dysfunction.


 Treatment of advanced stage prostate cancer:


 If the cancer is more advanced and its stage is more advanced, the patient may need a drug combination between radiotherapy and hormonal therapy.


 Radiation therapy requires daily maintenance for about eight weeks.


 hormonal therapy:


 In advanced prostate cancer cases, hormonal therapy is used to reduce the size of the cancer and slow its growth.  In early cases of prostate cancer, hormone therapy may be used to shrink the tumor before radiotherapy.  This leads to more successful radiotherapy.


 Side effects from hormone therapy include: erectile failure, hot flashes, weak bone structure, decreased libido, and weight gain.


 This treatment is based on stopping the production of testosterone.  Cancer cells depend on the hormone testosterone to be able to grow.  Therefore, cutting testosterone from cancer cells causes them to die or grow slowly.


 Medications that block the body's production of testosterone:


 These drugs prevent the testicles from receiving messages to make the hormone testosterone.  Medicines that are prescribed in this case include: leuprolide, goserelin, triptorelin, histrelin, ketoconazole, abiraterone.


 Or medical drugs that block testosterone from reaching cancer cells:


 Medicinal drugs called anti-androgens block testosterone from reaching cancer cells.  These medicines include: bicalutamide, flutamide, and nilutamide.


 If other hormonal drugs do not show any results or no longer give effective results, the use of enzalutamide is considered the best solution.


 The use of estrogen skin patches is an easier and safer way to treat prostate cancer, compared to other hormonal treatments.


 chemotherapy:


 Chemotherapy is used to kill rapidly growing cells, including cancer cells.


 Chemotherapy is given by intravenous infusion in the arm, as a pill, or in combination.  Chemotherapy is used in cases of advanced prostate cancer when cancer cells have spread to other areas of the body.  Chemotherapy may also be used as a treatment option when the body does not respond to hormonal therapy.


 Biological therapy (immunotherapy):


 It is based on using the body's immune system to fight cancer cells.


 One type of immunotherapeutic treatment called Sibulocell T (Proving) is being developed to treat advanced and recurrent cases of prostate cancer.


 surgeries:


 Surgery to remove the testicles:


 Removing the testicles reduces the levels of testosterone in the body, thus reducing the size of the tumor.


 The surgery to remove the prostate gland:


 It involves removing the prostate gland, surrounding tissue, and some lymph nodes.  This is done according to one of the following methods:


 Abdominal incision:


 The prostate gland is removed through an incision in the lower abdomen.  Compared to other types of surgeries, this method is safer and less dangerous than nerve damage that leads to many problems with bladder control and erection.


 Making an incision between the rectum and between the scrotum:


 As for this method of prostatectomy, it has a shorter duration of illness and faster recovery.  But this method makes it more difficult to remove nearby lymph nodes and avoid nerve damage.


 Laparoscopic prostatectomy:


 The doctor makes several small incisions in the abdomen and uses a small camera (endoscope).  This method requires a lot of skill because it increases the risk of injuring the adjacent tissues incorrectly.


 Conventional surgery requires a stay in the hospital for about ten days and then a comprehensive follow-up for three months.


 Robotic surgery has the advantage of having to stay in the hospital for only two days, followed by a shorter follow-up period at home.  But in some cases, robotic surgery is not feasible for very old men.


 As for the treatment of the inability to urinate, the doctor chooses the appropriate treatment based on the condition of each patient. It is possible to treat this by some medical drugs, by using a urinary catheter, or by performing an operation.

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